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Photo Gallery. Until then, it survived thanks to the efforts of a small number of wargaming clubs. The earliest of these clubs was the Berlin Wargame Association.
These clubs continued to develop Reisswitz's game, but they avoided mentioning his name in their publications. In , the Berlin Wargame Association published a limited expansion to Reisswitz's system.
In , they released a fresh wargaming manual which received a second edition in These updates sought to make Kriegsspiel more realistic, but they also made the rules more complicated.
Wilhelm von Tschischwitz published a Kriegsspiel manual in [c] that incorporated new technological advances such as railroads, telegraph, and breech-loading cannons; and which used conventional gaming dice.
In , Colonel Thilo von Trotha published his own wargaming treatise which went through three editions and had more complicated rules. The Austro-Prussian War of and the Franco-Prussian War of broke a long period of peace for the German states, which made many officers feel a pressing need to better familiarize themselves with the conduct of war.
This led to a surge in interest in Kriegsspiel among Prussian officers. Lieutenant Wilhelm Jacob Meckel published a treatise in [d] and another in [e] in which he expressed four complaints about the overcomplicated rules of Kriegsspiel : 1 the rules constrain the umpire, preventing him from applying his expertise; 2 the rules are too rigid to realistically model all possible outcomes in a battle, because the real world is complex and ever-changing; 3 the computations for casualties slow down the game and have a minor impact on a player's decisions anyway; 4 few officers are willing to make the effort to learn the rules.
The only things he kept were the dice and the losses tables for assessing casualties. In , General Julius von Verdy du Vernois proposed dispensing with all the rules and tools completely and allowing the umpire to arbitrate the game entirely as he saw fit.
Kriegsspiel attracted little attention outside of Prussia before In , the French general Auguste de Marmont witnessed a Kriegsspiel match in Berlin and commissioned a translation of Reisswitz's manual which was submitted to the French army in March Many credited the Prussian army's superior performance to its wargaming tradition.
The Prussian army did not have any significant advantage in weaponry, numbers, or troop quality, but it was the only army in the world that practiced wargaming.
Baring, based on the system of Wilhelm von Tschischwitz, was published in for the British army and received a royal endorsement.
Livermore published The American Kriegsspiel in In , a group of students and teachers at Oxford University founded the University Kriegspiel [ sic ] Club, which was the world's first recreational wargaming club.
Kriegsspiel has undergone a minor revival in the English-speaking world thanks to translations of the original rulebooks by a British wargaming enthusiast named Bill Leeson.
This summary is based on an English translation  of a wargaming manual written by Georg Heinrich Rudolf Johann von Reisswitz in Reisswitz's wargame was an instructional tool designed to teach battlefield tactics to Prussian officers.
It therefore aimed for maximum realism. The participants were expected to be well-versed in how battles were waged in the early 19th century.
This was particularly true for the umpire, who had to arbitrate situations which the rules did not cover using his own expertise.
Kriegsspiel is an open-ended game with no fixed victory conditions. The objectives of the respective teams are determined by the umpire and typically resemble the goals that an army might pursue in a real battlefield situation, such as expelling the enemy from a certain defensive position or inflicting a certain number of casualties.
The game is played between two teams and one umpire. Either team can have any number of players, but Reisswitz recommended 4 to 6 players each and that they be equal in size.
Only the umpire needs to be fully familiar with the rules, as he manipulates the pieces on the map and computes the outcomes of combat, whereas the players describe what they want their troops to do as if they were issuing orders to real troops in the field.
For example regular German infantry division from first mobilization wave consists of three infantry regiments, one artillery regiment and various smaller units.
Independent battalions are grouped into bigger units with strength set accordingly to number of battalions vide Polish Coastal Defence.
I decided to assign different 'tiers' to each army. Since German, French, British, Czechoslovak and US armies have tier 1, which means that most of their units are up-to-date.
Countries like Italy, SU or Poland have tier 2, which means that their models would be '-1' to the latest one. Minor countries have tier 3, so their models are mostly '-2' to the latest.
Reserve or not fully mobilized units have additional '-1'. Germany is of course treated in more detailed way - their models are based on their mobilization system: - 1st mobilization wave consists of active peacetime divisions, so they always have cutting-edge model - 2nd wave consists of fully trained reservists, so they're up-to-date - 3rd wave consists of reserve and Landwehr divisions - reserves have model '-1', Landwehr is shown as militia units Of course there would be more up-to-date waves like 8th active and training units or 11th and 12th wave veterans raised for the campaign in Russia , however most of waves mobilized reservists.
Experience is sometimes overlooked factor which simply means 'veterancy level' of each unit. So for each year of fighting - starting from - some divisions would gain another veterancy level.
Infanterie-Division was mobilized before war, but it was part of HG C next to French border, so it didn't took part in any serious fighting or major campaign and so it hasn't additional exp in April The same goes with units mobilized after Fall Weiss.
HQs appear in two different ways in attacking countries. They aren't supposed to fight on the frontline, they're more like flavour units which present chain of command.
Defending countries' HQs aren't locked to prevent them from being destroyed in first battles. Action Indie Military Simulation Multiplayer Tactical Shooter Historical RTS Allerdings findest du auch einige Kriegsspiele, bei denen weder geballert noch kommandiert wird.
Stattdessen setzt du dich beispielsweise im historischen Setting mit Keule und Schwert zur Wehr und haust deinen Gegnern ordentlich auf die Pixelrübe.
Alternativ kannst du in Crush the Castle mittelalterliche Burgen mit einem Katapult auseinandernehmen oder dir bei Super-Mechroboter einen eigenen futuristischen Kampfroboter zusammenbauen und andere Mechs zu Schrotthaufen verarbeiten.
Ganz egal, welches War Games-Genre dir am besten gefällt, ob du lieber auf realistischen beziehungsweise historischen Schlachtfelder aufräumst, Fantasy-Welten mit Fabelwesen, Magie und Schwertern oder Science-Fiction-Settings bevorzugst: Bei uns findest du sicher das richtige Kriegsspiel, mit dem du dir am Computer actionreich die Zeit mit Spielen vertreiben kannst.